01 May ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT MOTIVATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON BUYING BEHAVIOUR
In an organization’s context, it is of primary importance to understand what motivates a workforce so as to ensure their continued productivity and satisfaction. In a marketing context understanding what motivates a consumer is equally important. Motivation is a very important factor for that affects a human behavior it is affected by various psychological factors such as perception, learning, and personality. This will help the marketers to produce goods which are both desired as well as satisfying. Further, an in-depth understanding of what motivates will also be useful in preparing various promotion programmes for market segmentation purposes.
It has been observed by various psychologists and consumer researchers that there is diversity in consumer behavior with many individuals experiencing the same kind of needs and motives but varying in the way of expressing them. The complex human behavior can never be clearly stated in terms of specific responses to stimuli. Motivation is a prominent factor which indicates the individual’s response to a stimulus.
A psychologist had described the study of motivation as covering all the things which are biological, social and psychological and that they defeat our laziness and move us, either eagerly or reluctantly, to action. So simply stated we can say that the study of motivation is concerned with why people choose to behave in a certain way. The marketplace is full of product offerings, some of which have succeeded, while some have failed to capture the market. All this is ultimately based on the ability of the marketers in understanding the consumer needs.
Motivation is a highly dynamic process. It continuously changes, to adapt to the changing life experiences of the individual. It has basically three categories in which it can be raised or affected.
- Role of needs and goals to change individual motivation- According to economist needs and goals will continuously influence and individuals buying behavior. This is because once individual attains their goal new ones emerge. Whenever there are changes in individual’s physical condition, environment (or situation), experience etc., his or her needs and goals will change accordingly. In the event of the individuals not being able to attend their goals they will continue to strive for the goals or may opt for substitute goals. Major features of need and goals are like these:
- For example, even after having a heavy breakfast, the individual is likely to experience hunger after a few hours. Needs are never fully satisfied. Man prefers to Dress well and attend social gatherings to satisfy his social needs. Most of the human needs are not fully or completely satisfied.
- New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied: – For instance, once a person has built a house (psychological need) of his own he would have a lavish housewarming ceremony with celebrations. This is to take care of his social needs as well as to gain recognition and increase his self-esteem. motivational theorists like Abraham Maslow believed there existed a hierarchy of needs, with new needs of higher-order emerging as lower-order needs are satisfied
- Success and failure influence goals: – once individuals have successfully achieved a particular goal, they now set new and hair goals for themselves. They raise their level of aspiration, and if they are not able to reach their goals they will lower their level of aspiration. Thus it can be said that success and failure influence goals. The expectation will be based on past experience. of course an individual’s personality- his or her nature and persistence level also a role in building up there expectation level which in turn will affect his or her success or failure in reaching certain goals.
- Substitute goals: – this substitute goal will help in reducing the tension experience by them due to the depletion of the primary goal. When an individual is unable to achieve or attain a specific goal then his or her behavior maybe to go for a substitute goal.
- Frustration and defense mechanism in the needs
Satisfaction chain: – Frustration is the feeling experienced by an individual when he or she fails to achieve our goal. These may be in the form of inability due to Limited financial resources, the goal not in of concurrence to the social and cultural environment. While taking a defensive reaction to frustration the individual may react in different ways. While some may go for substitute goals, others may adopt a defense mechanism to protect their self-image and self-esteem. The defense mechanism may be in following forms:
- Rationalization or compromise: – He will be ready to compromise by self-convincing that it is not really worth pursuing or they are not being able to achieve their goals.
- Aggression: – Individuals while trying to cope up with frustration may Resort to aggressive behavior as an attempt to protect their self-esteem.
- Regression: – Sometimes people react to frustrating situations with childish behavior.
- Projection-:- If a customer returns a product which is not found to be of the desired quality, the retailer main assigns cause to the faulty packaging or blame the salesman. Under this, an individual may fix a frustrating situation by projecting blame for his or her drawback or inabilities on other person or object.
- There are many other forms which defense mechanism includes withdrawal, autism, identification, repression, sublimation etc.
- Arousal of motives and motivations
Individual-specific needs are dormant most of the time. The arousal of any need maybe as a result of an individual’s
- internal stimuli
- external environment
- Psychological arousal: – most of the psychological needs are involuntary and make the person undergo comfortable tensions, the individual tries to satisfy the needs. Individuals may be aroused by his or her body’s psychological needs at that specific period of time. There is a certain advertisement of products such as ice cream, Cadbury’s chocolate, designer clothes, cold drinks etc., which could cause arousal of psychological motives in the viewer’s mind.
- Emotional arousal:- At that time their thoughts tend to arouse dormant needs which will make him or her feel uncomfortable and push them into a ‘goal-directed’ behavior. A young man who dreams of becoming a defense officer may try to get through NDA exam. Very often emotional needs are aroused by autistic thinking. That is while daydreaming individuals many imagine themselves to be in very attractive and enviable positions.
Environment arousal: – Modification of environment will help to reduce the environmental arousal tension experienced by the individual. There is the difference in view regarding the arousal of human between two schools of thought. There are instances when random thoughts or personal achievement may lead to a cognitive arousal of motives. An advertisement which proves to be reminders of home or friends will trigger an urge to speak loved ones specific cues from the environment will arouse the set of needs. Without these cues, the needs may remain dormant.